Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 1997 by K. M. Kengatharan, C. Thiemermann (auth.), Prof. Jean-Louis

By K. M. Kengatharan, C. Thiemermann (auth.), Prof. Jean-Louis Vincent (eds.)

The Yearbook compiles the newest, common advancements of experimental and medical learn and perform in a single accomplished reference e-book. The chapters are written by way of good well-known specialists within the box of in depth care and emergency medication. it's addressed to each person fascinated with inner medication, anesthesia, surgical procedure, pediatrics, extensive care and emergeny medicine.

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Yearbook of Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine 1997

The Yearbook compiles the latest, common advancements of experimental and scientific study and perform in a single complete reference e-book. The chapters are written by way of good famous specialists within the box of extensive care and emergency medication. it really is addressed to each person enthusiastic about inner medication, anesthesia, surgical procedure, pediatrics, in depth care and emergeny drugs.

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This is due to the fact that the component of peptidoglycan, NAG-NAM-L-ala-D-isoglutamine, that accounts for the ability of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan to synergise with LTA is also present in the peptidoglycan of Bacillus subtilis. Thus, Staphylococcus aureus LTA, but not Bacillus subtilis LTA, synergises with NAG-NAM-L-ala-Disoglutamine to induce expression of iNOS protein and activity in macrophages. Therefore, the inability of Bacillus subtilis LTA to synergise with peptidoglycan from Bacillus subtilis might explain why this bacteria does not cause toxicity and mortality in mice [35].

In response to endotoxin, these cells form bioactive endogenous mediators which ultimately induce the typical endotoxic effects. One of the serum factors interacting with LPS is LPS-binding protein (LBP), which is considered to be of major importance in de aggregation and enhancement of LPS and lipid A activity [28,29], and subsequent transport of endotoxin to target cells (Fig. 2). LBP is a 55 kD acute-phase protein, mainly produced by the liver, although extrahepatic production has been described recently [30].

2) to induce NO in these cells [25]. e. the fragment NAM-L-ala-D-isoglutamine) also synergises with either IFN-y or LTA to cause NO formation although 8 K. M. Kengatharan and C. 5 " ! ;a " bJl 0 j bJl 0 ~ c:i ~,~ ~~ +Z §~ ~ E~ ::i~ +Z Fig. 2. 2 macrophages less effective than NAG-NAM-L-ala-D-isoglutamine. In contrast, smaller fragments of peptidoglycan (NAG, NAM, stem peptide, tetraglycine or pentaglycine) do not synergise with LTA to induce nitrite formation. In fact, NAM-L-ala-D-isoglutamine is the minimal biologically active structure of bacterial peptidoglycans [28,29).

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