By Andy Oram
The time period ''peer-to-peer'' has end up utilized to networks that count on finish clients to give a contribution their very own records, computing time, or different assets to a few shared venture. much more attention-grabbing than the platforms' technical underpinnings are their socially disruptive power: in quite a few methods they go back content material, selection, and regulate to usual users.
While this e-book is generally concerning the technical promise of peer-to-peer, we additionally speak about its fascinating social promise. groups were forming on the web for a very long time, yet they've been restricted through the flat interactive features of e mail and community newsgroups. humans can alternate suggestions and concepts over those media, yet have nice trouble commenting on every one other's postings, structuring details, acting searches, or developing summaries. If instruments supplied how you can manage info intelligently, and if every person may possibly serve up his or her personal information and retrieve others' info, the probabilities for collaboration may take off. Peer-to-peer applied sciences in addition to metadata may possibly increase nearly any crew of people that proportion an interest--technical, cultural, political, clinical, you identify it.
This ebook offers the pursuits that force the builders of the best-known peer-to-peer structures, the issues they have confronted, and the technical ideas they have discovered. examine right here the necessities of peer-to-peer from leaders of the field:
- Nelson Minar and Marc Hedlund of target=''new''>Popular Power, on a historical past of peer-to-peer
- Clay Shirky of acceleratorgroup, on the place peer-to-peer is probably going to be headed
- Tim O'Reilly of O'Reilly & Associates, on redefining the public's perceptions
- Dan Bricklin, cocreator of Visicalc, on harvesting details from end-users
- David Anderson of SETI@home, on how SETI@Home created the world's greatest computer
- Jeremie Miller of Jabber, on the net as a suite of conversations
- Gene Kan of Gnutella and GoneSilent.com, on classes from Gnutella for peer-to-peer technologies
- Adam Langley of Freenet, on Freenet's current and upcoming architecture
- Alan Brown of crimson Rover, on a intentionally low-tech content material distribution system
- Marc Waldman, Lorrie Cranor, and Avi Rubin of AT&T Labs, at the Publius undertaking and belief in dispensed systems
- Roger Dingledine, Michael J. Freedman, and David Molnar of Free Haven, on source allocation and responsibility in allotted systems
- Rael Dornfest of O'Reilly Network and Dan Brickley of ILRT/RDF internet, on metadata
- Theodore Hong of Freenet, on performance
- Richard Lethin of Reputation Technologies, on how recognition could be equipped online
- Jon Udell of BYTE and Nimisha Asthagiri and Walter Tuvell of Groove Networks, on security
- Brandon Wiley of Freenet, on gateways among peer-to-peer systems
You'll locate details at the most up-to-date and maximum structures in addition to upcoming efforts during this book.
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Extra resources for Peer-to-Peer : Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies
AOL now succeeds for its customers as a "first among equals" rather than as a completely closed system. In the case of a distributed computation application, metadata might mean some identifier that allows the distributed data elements to be reassembled, and the address of the user who is working on a particular segment. SETI@home tracks user identity as a way of providing a game-like environment in which users and companies compete to contribute the most cycles. Startups aiming to compensate users for their spare compute cycles will need to track how much is contributed.
And search engines, identifying and capitalizing on the ways that centralization impacts even radically decentralized systems has turned out to be one key to financial success. Instant messaging turns out to tell a similar story. The namespace of an instant messaging system, and the mapping of identity onto user addresses, is the key to those systems. You have only to witness the efforts of AOL to keep other instant messaging vendors from reaching its customers to understand just how important this is.
The contribution of SOAP is to formalize something that sophisticated programmers have been doing for years. It's been relatively easy, using Perl and a library like libwww-perl, to build interfaces to web sites that do "screen scraping" and then reformulate and reuse the data in ways that the original web developers didn't intend. Jon Udell (co-author of Chapter 18) demonstrated that one could even take data from one web site and pass it to another for further processing, in a web equivalent to the Unix pipeline.