Feeling Betrayed: The Roots of Muslim Anger at America by Steven Kull

By Steven Kull

Although it's been approximately a decade because the assaults of September eleven, the specter of terrorism emanating from the Muslim global has no longer subsided. U.S. troops struggle opposed to radical Islamists out of the country, and every day, americans go through physique scanners as a part of the hassle to protect opposed to one other assault. obviously, many americans ask yourself what's taking place in Muslim society that breeds such hostility towards the United States.

Steven Kull, a political psychologist and said authority on overseas public opinion, has sought to appreciate extra deeply how Muslims see the US. How common is hostility towards the us within the Muslim international? And what are its roots? How a lot help is there for radical teams that assault american citizens, and why? Kull performed concentration teams with consultant samples in Egypt, Morocco, Pakistan, Jordan, Iran, and Indonesia; carried out a number of in-depth surveys in 11 majority-Muslim international locations over a interval of a number of years; and comprehensively analyzed information from different agencies akin to Gallup, international Values Survey and the Arab Barometer. He writes:

"A premise of this publication is that the matter of terrorism doesn't easily lie within the small variety of those that subscribe to terrorist organisations. fairly, the life of terrorist firms is a symptom of a rigidity within the better society that reveals a very virulent expression in sure members. The hostility towards the USA within the broader society performs a serious position in maintaining terrorist teams, no matter if such a lot disapprove of these groups' strategies. the fundamental 'problem,' then, is considered one of America's courting with the society as a whole."

Through costs from concentration teams in addition to survey facts, Kull digs lower than the skin of Muslim anger at the US to bare the underlying narrative of the US as oppressing— and at a deeper point, as having betrayed—the Muslim humans. With the subtlety of a psychologist he indicates how this anger is fed via an "inner conflict of civilizations," among Muslims' wish to connect to the United States and all that it represents, and their worry that the USA will weigh down and ruin their conventional Islamic culture.

Finally, Kull maps out the consequences of those findings for U.S. overseas coverage, exhibiting what percentage U.S. activities antagonize the bigger Muslim inhabitants and support al Qaeda by way of bettering their ability for recruitment. He specifies steps that may mitigate Muslim hostility and draw on a number of the underlying shared values which can help extra respectful and, probably, even amicable Muslim-American kin.

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Troops based in Iraq (89 percent), Afghanistan (85 percent), and the Persian Gulf (77 percent). S. troops were also found in Bangladesh, Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, and Pakistan. S. troops in any of the locations, but large numbers—sometimes majorities—either approved of 01-0559-8 CH 1:0305-1 22 3/3/11 1:54 PM Page 22 Muslim Anger and Support for Anti-American Groups F I G U R E 1 - 6 . Attacks on Civilians in the United States Palest. Ter. org, 2009. attacks or had mixed feelings. Only the Azerbaijanis were under 3 in 10 approving or having mixed feeling about attacks in all locations.

Actions by the United States to achieve these goals are seen as not only political, but also as coercive through the constant implicit and explicit threats of the use of superior military power. S. forces in the region are seen as key in performing this coercive function. S. military forces in the Muslim world. S. S. S. military forces in the Persian Gulf. S. S. Sixth Fleet. The United States operates bases in Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. S. forces in the region—that they are a stabilizing force or that they are there to fight terrorism—are roundly dismissed.

Clash of Civilizations or Common Ground? Thinking about Muslim and Western cultures, do you think that violent conflict between them is inevitable or that it is possible to find common ground? Common ground possible Conflict inevitable 26 68 Lebanon Indonesia 66 12 Iran 64 12 Egypt (BBC) 54 Morocco 54 43 28 Turkey 49 29 UAE 47 27 Egypt (WPO) 45 43 15 38 Pakistan Source: WPO and BBC, 2006–08. F I G U R E 2 - 2 . Attitudes Based on Values or Policy? Would you say that your attitudes toward the United States are based more on American values or on American policy in the Middle East?

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