Ethnic Relations: A Cross-Cultural Encyclopedia (Human by David Levinson

By David Levinson

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Traditionally, the caste was paid through reciprocal service or with food, although more recently, financial payments have become the norm. For example, in one northern Indian village there are 12 castes and outcastes. The Khati (carpenter) caste repairs agricultural tools for the Brahman (priest), Baniya (trader), Nai (barber), and Jat (farmer) castes, and receives services from seven other castes. In addition to this structured economic relationship, the jajmani system also contains many social rules that reinforce the hierarchical nature of the caste system by restricting contact between higher and lower ranked castes.

The Croats emerged as a distinct ethnic group in the seventh century, and after centuries of self-rule became linked with Hungary in the twelfth century. They were then under Austrian (Hapsburg) and Ottoman rule, and a part of the Austro-Hungary Empire. After World War I, they joined with Serbia and Slovenia to form the predecessor of the modern Yugoslavia, and following World War II became one of Yugoslavia's six states. In 1991 Croatia became an independent nation. Croatians are mainly Roman Catholic.

1975) European Moslems: Economy and Ethnicity in Western Bosnia. Magas, Branka. (1993) The Destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking Yugoslavia's Break-Up 1980— 1992. Sekelj, Laslo. (1993) Yugoslavia: The Process of Disintegration. Translated from SerboCroatian by Vera Vukelic. S. Committee for Refugees. (1993) World Refugee Survey. were various categories of merchants, farmers, and craftsmen; lower still were the castelike blacksmiths, potters, and tanners; and at the bottom were the freed slaves, considered beneath or outside the hierarchy.

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