By Derk-Jan Haverkamp
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Additional resources for Environmental management in the Dutch food and beverage industry: A longitudinal study into the joint impact of business network and firm characteristics on the adoption of environmental management capabilities
Several pilot projects were set up in firms with governmental support (Van der Kolk, 1987; Braakhuis, Gijtenbeek and Hafkamp, 1995). g. less energy usage and waste production). Firms have never been obliged to implement an environmental management system. In 1989, though, the government did formulate two conditions to the voluntary implementation. First, firms with substantive environmental impact should have an environmental management system in place by 1995. Second, the minor polluting firms should also be encouraged to implement an environmental management system or parts of it, tailored to their situation, in all relevant sectors by 1995.
2 Environmental emissions8 Dutilh and Blijswijk (2004) have identified the following four most important environmental emissions in the Dutch food and beverage industry: • Water usage and energy consumption. • Emissions to water and air. • The use of packaging materials. • Production of organic waste. Water usage and energy consumption Water can be used for washing organic products (such as potatoes and sugar beets), cleaning processing equipment and machinery, and to produce steam. Only 10% of the total amount of water is actually used as a product ingredient.
G. chemical industry). In addition to an environmental permit, there are other environmental 36 Environmental management in the Dutch food and beverage industry Study domain regulatory obligations that have to be taken into account. Important examples are environmental legislation to protect the soil and water quality. Environmental permits are, for instance, required for waste water disposal, which is taken care of by the Dutch water boards. Hence, firms have to get different environmental permits from different governmental agencies.