Environmental hydrology and hydraulics : eco-technological by Some Nath Ghosh; Venkappayya Rangappayya Desai

By Some Nath Ghosh; Venkappayya Rangappayya Desai

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At these stations the modified Brutsaert and Stricker formula gave encouraging results, which support the concept of complementary evaporation. Clearly the approach has great potential in areas of sparse data. 1 Potential Evapotranspiration One aspect of the soil-water budget that involves significant uncertainty and ambiguity is estimating potential evapotranspiration. Just the concept of potential evapotranspiration is ambiguous by itself, as discussed in the next section. Due to limited meteorological data, two simple methods for estimating potential evapotranspiration were considered for the Niger basin !

Tahal Consulting Engineers Ltd. , Tel Aviv, Israel. 1 GENERAL Worldwide, agriculture has been the single biggest drain on water supplies, accounting for about 69 percent of all use. About 23 percent of water withdrawals go to meet the demands of industry and energy, and just 8 percent to domestic or household use. Patterns of use vary greatly from country to country, depending on levels of economic development, climate and population size. Africans, for instance, devote 88 percent of the water they use to agriculture, mostly irrigation, while highly industrialized Europeans allot more than half their water to industry and hydropower production.

5. Vegetation—Vegetative cover may slow the runoff from rainfall. As vegetation takes in water, the runoff is retarded. 6. Topography—Runoff varies as the terrain varies. A mountainous terrain will have a faster runoff rate than one of a flat terrain. 7. State of ground—Rainfall over frozen ground produces more runoff than rainfall over non-frozen ground. Frozen ground is more impervious to rainfall. 3 Flooding Flooding kills more people and causes more damage per year on average than any other natural disaster including hurricanes and tornadoes.

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