By James R. Pfafflin, Edward N. Ziegler
Thoroughly revised and up to date, Encyclopedia of Environmental technological know-how and Engineering, 5th version spans the total spectrum of environmental technological know-how and engineering. nonetheless the main finished, authoritative reference to be had during this box, the huge two-volume encyclopedia has accelerated to incorporate 87 articles on themes starting from acid rain, pollution, and neighborhood overall healthiness, to environmental legislations, instrumentation, modeling, replacement power, toxicology, radioactive waste, and water remedy. The articles were largely revised and up to date, new ones were extra to hide the most recent advancements with regards to modern-day environmental difficulties. the result's a reference paintings that offers the data essential to comprehend, deal with, and reply to threats to the human atmosphere.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Environmental Science and Engineering, Fifth Edition, Volumes One and Two
Indd 628 11/18/2005 10:38:19 AM MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES TURBINE 629 CONDENSER SECONDARY CIRCUIT STEAM WATER HEAT EXCHANGER HOT WATER COLD WATER PRIMARY CIRCUIT REACTOR CORE FIGURE 1 Schematic diagram of processes in nuclear power station. Nearly all radioactivity remains inside the fuel, which is inside the core, which is inside the primary circuit. one of the most toxic of all radionuclides and presents a serious potential hazard. Various methods of treatment, such as co-precipitation with barium, render most of the radium insoluble.
As long ago as 1959 fifty million gallons of High Level wastes were stored in stainless steel tanks at Hanford (USA) alone. The radionuclides in solution generate so much decay heat that many of the tanks boil, making the provision of elaborate off-gas cleaning systems necessary. Some high level waste tanks have ruptured, but since they are constructed on a cup-and-saucer principle, with adequate monitoring for spills, and spare tankage is kept available, no unexpected contamination problems have arisen.
J. ” The implications of this question are profound. Some of the wastes for which we are responsible will still be radioactive after our present civilization has disappeared and perhaps been forgotten. So far as we know there is no practicable solution to the problem. indd 632 11/18/2005 10:38:19 AM MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES 633 FIGURE 3 Pouring a concrete monolith. Steel drums filled with waste, solidified by mixing with cement, were stacked on concrete slabs surrounded with forms. The forms were filled with concrete.