By Pradip Kar
An A-to-Z of doping together with its definition, its value, tools of size, merits and drawbacks, houses and characteristics—and function in conjugated polymers
The versatility of polymer fabrics is increasing a result of advent of electro-active habit into the features of a few of them. the main interesting improvement during this region is expounded to the invention of intrinsically conductive polymers or conjugated polymers, which come with such examples as polyacetylene, polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene in addition to their derivatives. "Synmet" or "synthetic steel" conjugated polymers, with their metal features, together with conductivity, are of detailed curiosity to researchers. a space of unlimited strength and alertness, conjugated polymers have sparked huge, immense curiosity, starting in 2000 whilst the Nobel Prize for the invention and improvement of electrically engaging in conjugated polymers used to be offered to 3 scientists: Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa.
Conjugated polymers have a mix of properties—both metal (conductivity) and polymeric; doping provides the conjugated polymer's semiconducting a variety of conductivity, from insulating to low undertaking. The doping procedure is a validated powerful process for generating undertaking polymers as semiconducting fabric, supplying an alternative choice to inorganic semiconductors.
Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the 1st publication devoted to the topic and provides a finished A-to-Z evaluate. It information doping interplay, dopant kinds, doping options, and the impact of the dopant on purposes. It explains how the functionality of doped conjugated polymers is significantly motivated through the character of the dopants and their point of distribution in the polymer, and indicates how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical homes of the doped conjugated polymers may be adapted via controlling the scale and mobility of the dopants counter ions.
The ebook additionally examines doping on the nanoscale, particularly, with carbon nanotubes.
The e-book will curiosity a vast diversity of researchers together with chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, digital and electric engineers, polymer and fabrics scientists. it could possibly even be utilized in either graduate and upper-level undergraduate classes on conjugated polymers and polymer technology.
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Extra resources for Doping in conjugated polymers
So, whatever be the doping interaction with the conjugated polymer, according to the above chemical nature of the reagents used for the doping of conjugated polymer, the dopant can be classiﬁed as inorganic, organic and polymeric dopant. 1). 1 Arbitrary relative sizes of counter ions for (a) inorganic (b) organic and (c) polymeric dopant interacting with conjugated polymer chain. 1 Inorganic Dopant As the name suggests, inorganic dopants are inorganic materials that are used to dope the conjugated polymer.
Unfortunately the classiﬁcation of dopant has been given the least importance by the research community and is also very confusing. 1. Doping in conducting polymer can be distinctly classiﬁed as follows: 19 20 Doping in Conjugated Polymers 1. According to electron transfer a. p-type dopant b. n-type dopant 2. According to chemical nature a. Inorganic dopant b. Organic dopant c. Polymeric dopant 3. According to doping mechanism a. Ionic dopants or redox dopant b. Non-redox or neutral dopant c. Self-dopant d.
Thus improving the overall performance of the doped conjugated polymer during application. 3). 3 Polyaniline (a) doped with HCl (b) doped with p-toluene sulfonic acid and (c) co-doped with HCl and p-toluene sulfonic acid . Introduction to Doping in Conjugated Polymer 17 simultaneous primary dopants that also are non-interacting with each other. 6 Doping as Probable Solution The achievement of conjugated polymers for prospective application in various ﬁelds has not been widely recognized, especially by trade and business.