By Pietro Lunardi
This paintings illustrates how the research of managed Deformation in Rocks and Soils (ADECO-RS) is utilized in the layout and the development of tunnels.
The ADECO-RS method makes a transparent contrast among the layout and the development levels and permits trustworthy forecasts of building instances and prices to be made. It makes use of the development center (the middle of floor prior to the face) as a structural instrument for the lengthy and brief time period stabilisation of tunnels, after its tension has first been regulated utilizing conservation recommendations. Tunnels can for that reason be pushed in tricky stress-strain stipulations to predetermined protection criteria with operations industrialised and scheduled precisely.
Thanks to this process layout engineers were capable of hire commercial standards in tunnel excavation, even less than super tricky stress-strain conditions.
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Extra info for Design and Construction of Tunnels: Analysis of controlled deformation in rocks and soils (ADECO-RS)
The numerous in situ measurements performed to study the behaviour of the excavation using the new technology demonstrated its effectiveness. The movements, which usually develop in the ground before the passage of the face, were prac tically eliminated, while the maximum gradient of deformation was reached during the excava tion of the tunnel invert, which when cast resulted in the immediate stabilisation of the cavity. Since the ground had conserved most of its original characteristics, thanks to the preconfine ment, even the long term stress acting on the lining was considerably reduced compared to the stresses that would have been expected with conventional tunnel advance.
The band of bolt reinforced rock contributed effectively towards the statics of the tunnel, limiting convergence and preventing the appearance of consequent instability. Assisted by the good quality of the rock, tunnel advance proceeded at rates of 200 m per month until work halted temporarily at metre 5,173 for the summer holiday break, in a zone of homogeneous rock with an overburden of approximately 1,200 m. Convergence measurement station No. 6, installed immediately 1 metre back from the face (metre 5,172), recorded maximum deformation of approximately 10 cm, after advance had halted for 15 days (Fig.
3 The third research stage The results of the second research stage reinforced the impression, which we already had, that the deformation of the advance core of a tunnel was the true cause of the whole deformation process in all its components (extrusion, preconvergence and convergence) and that 35 36 From the research to ADECO-RS Action for preconfinement and confinement of the cavity How was it possible to adjust the rigidity of the core-face system and therefore verify whether this actually made it possible to control the deformation response (convergence) of the cavity?