Crude Oil Waxes, Emulsions, and Asphaltenes by J.R. Becker

By J.R. Becker

Becker explains the actual chemical difficulties linked to waxes and emulsions and the hot applied sciences for therapy of those difficulties. Contents: Petroleum businesses and emulsions Forces interested by macroscopic actual habit of emulsions Oil and water emulsion breakers Petroleum businesses and waxes Chemical surfaces Wax crystal order and temperature Wax: actual houses and quantum results Ashaltenes and crude oil Ashaltenes: bulk habit and trying out tools actual houses of treating chemical compounds Appendices

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Figure 1–11 shows its preferred arrangement in an oil/water mixture. 21 Fig. 1–7 Oil in water emulsion Section I, Chapter 1 22 Fig. 1–8 Loss of hydrogen to polar phase Petroleum Companies and Emultions 23 Fig. 1–9 Water-in-oil emulsion Section I, Chapter 1 24 Fig. 1–10 Sorbitan mono-oleate in an oil/water mixture Petroleum Companies and Emultions 25 Section I, Chapter 1 If the fatty tail or alkyl group is highly branched, or contains ring structures, the forces of interaction (London dispersion forces) tend to be weaker than those possessed by linear alkyl groups, since orderly arrangement of bulky groups is energetically less favored.

Another factor determining emulsion type is the configuration of the nonpolar group. An example of a bipolar molecule with less hydrogen bonding characteristics than sorbitan mono-oleate is stearic acid. Figure 1–11 shows its preferred arrangement in an oil/water mixture. 21 Fig. 1–7 Oil in water emulsion Section I, Chapter 1 22 Fig. 1–8 Loss of hydrogen to polar phase Petroleum Companies and Emultions 23 Fig. 1–9 Water-in-oil emulsion Section I, Chapter 1 24 Fig. 1–10 Sorbitan mono-oleate in an oil/water mixture Petroleum Companies and Emultions 25 Section I, Chapter 1 If the fatty tail or alkyl group is highly branched, or contains ring structures, the forces of interaction (London dispersion forces) tend to be weaker than those possessed by linear alkyl groups, since orderly arrangement of bulky groups is energetically less favored.

What effect does temperature have on the size and stability of an emulsion? 1–6. What type of bonding do alkyl groups of bipolar molecules exhibit? 1–7. What part do gravitational forces play in the stability of emulsions? References Mysels, Karol. J. Introduction to Colloid Chemistry. 1st ed. , 1959 Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 56th ed. Cleveland: CRC Press, 1975–1976. 29 2 Forces Involved in Emulsions Chemical Complexity of Crude Oil Emulsions Emulsions are not just pure water in oil, or oil in water, but complex mixtures of a large variety of chemical structures that partition into the phase that provides the most stable environment.

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