By Alec Groysman
This publication addresses corrosion difficulties and their suggestions at amenities within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, together with cooling water and boiler feed water devices. extra, it describes and analyzes corrosion regulate activities, corrosion tracking, and corrosion administration. Corrosion difficulties are a perennial factor within the oil refining and petrochemical undefined, as they bring about a deterioration of the practical homes of steel apparatus and damage the surroundings – either one of which have to be safe for the sake of present and destiny generations. therefore, this e-book examines and analyzes common and extraordinary corrosion failure instances and their prevention at refineries and petrochemical amenities, together with issues of: pipelines, tanks, furnaces, distillation columns, absorbers, warmth exchangers, and pumps. furthermore, it describes naphthenic acid corrosion, rigidity corrosion cracking, hydrogen damages, sulfidic corrosion, microbiologically precipitated corrosion, erosion-corrosion, and corrosion fatigue happening at refinery devices. ultimately, fouling, corrosion and cleansing are mentioned during this book.
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Additional info for Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry
Copper alloys are not resistant to both NH3 and H2S, even Nickel alloy 400 (Monel) corrodes. (b) Temperature in reflux should be above 40 °C to avoid sublimation of NH4HS on trays. (c) It is possible to reduce NH4HS and NH4Cl concentrations in the condensation area by injection of calculated amount of wash water. Water is injected to remove salts and scrub HCl gas. 2). Water sources can be stripped (or recycled) sour water, steam condensate, or boiler feed water. Stripped sour water containing cyanides should be avoided.
The deposits formed inside the shell of the heat exchanger contained Fe, S, Ca, Na, Si, and Cl. Chemical analysis. Deposits (inorganic part) mostly consisted of FeS and Fe2(SO4)3. Failure phenomenon: Under deposit acid corrosion . Cause of failure and its explanation. Crude oil was in stagnation and did not flow 8 months through the heat exchanger. Deposits from the crude precipitated on the lower part of the heat exchanger shell. Hydrogen sulﬁde contained in crude oil reacted with iron forming iron sulﬁde.
Water is injected to remove salts and scrub HCl gas. 2). Water sources can be stripped (or recycled) sour water, steam condensate, or boiler feed water. Stripped sour water containing cyanides should be avoided. When water injection is not possible, the use of corrosion resistant alloys is required. 2, SS 304 (in the absence of chlorides), duplex stainless steels, Incoloy 825, and aluminum. Following relative resistance of alloys to sour water corrosion is deﬁned: Hastelloy C276 > AL-6XN > 2507 Duplex SS > Inconel 625 > Alloy 20Cb-3 > Incoloy 825 > Inconel 600 > Incoloy 800 > 2205 Duplex SS > SS 316 > SS 304 > SS 410> Ni Alloy 400 > carbon steel [17–19].