Coal Pyrolysis (Coal Science & Technology) by G.R. Gavalas

By G.R. Gavalas

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Extra resources for Coal Pyrolysis (Coal Science & Technology)

Example text

9, is considerably different from that of tar. The ultimate yield increases with temperature in the whole range studied. Moreover, the 80s curve considerably exceeds the 20s curve up to about 900 0e indicating the generally higher activation energy of the respective rate determining steps. , also using the captive sample technique (refs. 63,64,71,72). Because the experiments employed nonisothermal temperature pulses, the measurements do not permit the ready visualization of the dependence on time and temperature, although they are amenable to kinetic analysis as will be discussed in the next chapter.

4 units. 2 units. 4 units are needed, which can be assigned to four bending modes. If the frequency of each of these bonds in the reactant is 400 cm- 1 , the frequency in the transition state must be about 180 cm- 1 We now consider the reaction CM-Ph-CH2CH2-Ph~-CM (d§) differing from d5 mainly in the molecular weight of the group CM-Ph-CH Z' If this 1 weight is taken as 500 the bending frequencies are 400 (91/500)~ = 170 cm180 (91/500)~ = 77 cm- 1. 9. 8 We now go back to reaction (04), (d4) CM-Ph-CHZ-Ph-CM + CM-Ph-CH2····Ph~-CM 0 where we distinguish the following contributions at 800 K, (i) Translation, spin and symmetry do not change.

With some exceptions, the sulfur content is higher than in the parent coal but the temperature dependence is erratic and varies from coal to coal. The content of nitrogen is generally similar to that in the parent coal and shows no noticeable temperature trend. The distribution of sulfur in the pyrolysis products can be examined in more detail in Fig. 12 (ref. 70) which gives organic and total sulfur normalized with respect to the composition in the parent coal. All of the sulfur in the tar is, of course, organic.

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