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Extra resources for Biogeochemical cycles of elements
It has been argued that cyanobacteria altered the solubility of metals on a global scale as a by-product of dioxygen-evolving photosynthesis. It is reasonable to propose that the greater autonomy provided by photosynthesis allowed early cyanobacteria to colonize vast vacant habitats, life previously being restricted to niches with exploitable sources of chemical energy. Copyright 2005 by Taylor & Francis Group 4 Kroneck Molecular oxygen did not immediately accumulate in the atmosphere and waters, due largely to the presence of abundant ferrous iron, which reacted with the oxygen to precipitate massive banded ferric iron formations.
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 2. 1. 2. 3. 3. Implications for Biogeochemistry 4. 1. 1. 2. 3. 2. 3. Implications for Biogeochemistry 5. Summary Acknowledgments References 1. 32 32 34 34 36 39 39 41 41 INTRODUCTION Hydrogen has played an important role in Earth’s geochemistry and biology since the earliest stages of the planet’s history. H2 is postulated to have been a significant component of the early, prebiotic atmosphere, where it had direct or indirect effects on atmospheric redox chemistry and radiation budget, and contributed to planetary oxidation by escape to space.
The deep lithospheric habitat is thereby potentially much greater in volume than its surface counterpart. In addition, it could offer a stable refuge against inhospitable surface conditions related to climatic or atmospheric evolution, or even surface-sterilizing impacts . H2 is the chemical “fuel” most often envisioned to support a rock-hosted biosphere, because of its wide utilization in microbial metabolism and the existence of a variety of mechanisms for its production by the rock matrix (as above).