By Ralph O. Mueller

During the final 20 years, structural equation modeling (SEM) has emerged as a robust multivariate facts research instrument in social technological know-how study settings, specifically within the fields of sociology, psychology, and schooling. even supposing its roots should be traced again to the 1st 1/2 this century, whilst Spearman (1904) built issue research and Wright (1934) brought course research, it used to be no longer until eventually the Seventies that the works through Karl Joreskog and his affiliates (e. g. , Joreskog, 1977; Joreskog and Van Thillo, 1973) started to make common SEM strategies available to the social and behavioral technology examine groups. this day, with the improvement and extending avail skill of SEM computing device courses, SEM has turn into a well-established and revered info research strategy, incorporating a number of the conventional research suggestions as distinct instances. cutting-edge SEM software program programs corresponding to LISREL (Joreskog and Sorbom, 1993a,b) and EQS (Bentler, 1993; Bentler and Wu, 1993) deal with quite a few usual least squares regression designs in addition to complicated structural equation types concerning variables with arbitrary distributions. regrettably, many scholars and researchers hesitate to take advantage of SEM tools, might be as a result a bit of complicated underlying statistical repre sentation and idea. in my view, social technology scholars and researchers can profit significantly from buying wisdom and talents in SEM because the methods-applied appropriately-can supply a bridge among the theo retical and empirical points of behavioral research.

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**Example text**

945 E4 sions, but structural relationships were specified a priori. One major advantage of path analysis is that, in addition to direct structural effects (DE), indirect effects (J E) through intervening variables can be estimated. 025, respectively). 1. Linear Regression and Classical Path Analysis 34 The computational definitions of a direct and indirect effect of an independent on a dependent variable in a general structural equation model are based on the fact that covariances between two variables can be completely decomposed and written as functions of the model-implied parameters.

A theory-derived structure of the involved variables, is specified. Path diagrams are graphical representations of these a priori specified structures, and, if appropriate assumptions are met, ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates of regression coefficients can be used to estimate the strengths of the structural relationships specified in the diagram. Path Diagrams and Structural Equations The foregoing discussions and analyses of the influence of parents' socioeconomic status (SES), respondent's motivation, and college prestige on respondent's SES can be extended by imposing an explicit and more detailed structure on these four constructs.

2. 196, which, again, are equal to the corresponding OLS estimates discussed earlier. 2: MULTIPLE LINEAR REGRESSION OF ACADEMIC DEGREE ON FATHER's EDUCATIONAL LEVEL, DEGREE ASPIRATIONS, AND COLLEGE SELECTIVITY EQS Input. 7 lists an EQS program for the multiple regression example (Degree on FaEd, DegreAsp, and Selectvty). 3. Recall that all information within sections of an EQS program must end with a semicolon (;), except within the sections related to data input near the end of the program. Lines 1 through 4: /TITLE and /SPECIFICA TIONS sections (optional and required, respectively).