By Cameron Newham, Carl Albing, JP Vossen
The main to studying any Unix procedure, in particular Linux and Mac OS X, is an intensive wisdom of shell scripting. Scripting is the way to harness and customise the facility of any Unix procedure, and it's a necessary ability for any Unix clients, together with process directors OS X builders. yet underneath this straightforward promise lies a treacherous ocean of adaptations in Unix instructions and criteria.
bash Cookbook teaches shell scripting the best way Unix masters perform the craft. It provides quite a few recipes and tips for all degrees of shell programmers in order that someone can turn into a expert consumer of the commonest Unix shell -- the bash shell -- and cygwin or different well known Unix emulation applications. Packed filled with worthwhile scripts, besides examples that specify find out how to create greater scripts, this new cookbook supplies execs and tool clients every little thing they should automate regimen projects and permit them to actually deal with their platforms -- instead of have their platforms deal with them.
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Additional resources for bash Cookbook: Solutions and Examples for bash Users
Jp won't pay for coffee. " jp won't pay $5 for coffee. ' I won't pay $5 for coffee. See Also • Chapter 5 for more about shell variable and the $VAR syntax • Chapter 18 for more about ! , /bin/echo or the built-in echo). Or you’ve created a new command and it may be conflicting with an existing external or built-in command. Solution Use the type and which commands to see if a given command exists and whether it is built-in or external. # type cd cd is a shell builtin # type awk awk is /bin/awk Using or Replacing Built-ins and External Commands | 13 # which cd /usr/bin/which: no cd in (/bin:/sbin:/usr/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/local/bin:/usr/local/ sbin:/usr/bin/X11:/usr/X11R6/bin:/root/bin) # which awk /bin/awk Discussion A built-in command is just that; it is built into the shell itself, while an external command is an external file launched by the shell.
When in doubt, use the single quotes. 3 Writing Output with More Formatting Control Problem You want more control over the formatting and placement of output. Solution Use the printf built-in command. 93 $ Discussion The printf built-in command behaves like the C language library call, where the first argument is the format control string and the successive arguments are formatted according to the format specifications (%). The numbers between the % and the format type (s or f in our example) provide additional formatting details.
With the echo command there are two ways to eliminate the newline. First, the -n option suppresses the trailing newline. , \n for newline). To use these escape sequences, you must invoke echo with the -e option. One of echo’s escape sequences is \c, which doesn’t print a character, but rather inhibits printing the ending newline. Thus, here’s a third solution: $ echo -e 'hi\c' hi$ Because of the powerful and flexible formatting that printf provides, and because it is a built-in with very little overhead to invoke (unlike other shells or older versions of bash, where printf was a standalone executable), we will use printf for many of our examples throughout the book.