African Climate and Climate Change: Physical, Social and by Charles J. R. Williams, Dominic R. Kniveton

By Charles J. R. Williams, Dominic R. Kniveton

Compared to many different areas of the realm, Africa is very susceptible to the results of weather switch and variability. frequent poverty, an in depth ailment burden and wallet of political instability around the continent has led to a low resilience and constrained adaptative ability of African society to weather similar shocks and stresses. To compound this vulnerability, there continues to be huge wisdom gaps on African weather, manifestations of destiny weather switch and variability for the quarter and the linked difficulties of weather switch affects. learn as regards to African weather swap calls for an interdisciplinary procedure linking experiences of environmental, political and socio-economic spheres. during this ebook we use various case reviews on weather switch and variability in Africa to demonstrate diversified techniques to the research of weather swap in Africa from around the spectrum of actual, social and political sciences. In doing so we strive to focus on a toolbox of methodologies (along with their obstacles and merits) which may be used to extra the certainty of the affects of weather switch in Africa and therefore support shape the root for options to negate the unfavorable implications of weather swap on society.

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17 Composites of wind at 850 mb for deficit-climatology of Zone IIb in (left) and excessclimatology of Zone IV (right). 1 level • ENSO: for the contemporaneous season deficit rains in all zones (except Zone V) are associated with El-Niño. However, the influence of a previous winter El-Niño in the following Kiremt is opposite between Zone I and the rest of the regions as shown in Fig. 16. • There is an opposite pattern between Zone IIb and Zone IV in terms of geopotential height (Fig. 19). A positive geopotential height anomaly over central Africa is associated with deficit rains of Zone IIb and excess rains of Zone IV.

This oscillation of wind from easterly to westerly is known as the Quasi Biennial Oscillation (QBO). The QBO is characterised by an alternating pattern of eastward and westward wind regimes in the lower equatorial stratosphere that repeat at an interval varying from 22 to 34 months with an average period of 28 months (Takahashi and Holton 1991). Holton and Tan (1980) suggested that successive regimes of westerlies and easterlies propagate downward at an average rate of about 1 km/month but with the westerly shear zone descending more rapidly and more regularly than the easterly shear zone.

This implies that the westerly phase of the QBO is associated with deficit rainfall in summer and excess rainfall in spring season. This is due to the fact that for northeast Africa the structure of the mean low level wind is easterly in spring and westerly in summer. 45827 7 0 15 1. 00491 827 1. 1592 0 Composite of crossection of U based on deficit-climatology of zone IIa rainfall -5 –10 0 Latitude 10 20 30 –5 200 –30 –20 –10 0 10 20 30 Latitude Fig. 7 excess-climatology (left) and deficit-climatology (right) composites of cross sections of zonal wind speed (m/s) during Kiremt season.

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