Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates by Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan

By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan

This booklet had its genesis in a symposium on gasoline hydrates awarded on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yank Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers offered in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy subject matters no longer addressed throughout the symposium. fuel hydrates are a different category of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside an open reliable lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a lot of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped by means of the host fabric. Commonexamples of fuel hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At commonplace strain and temperature, methane hydrate includes through quantity one hundred eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has envisioned that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all different kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in reality, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of power for a number of centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first found within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.

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Mass transfer phenomenon during growth period at constant temperature and pressure. solid-vapor (Elliot and Lira, [11]) as long as the system is univariant, as is the case for simple hydrates (van der Waals and Platteuw, [12]). This relationship can be expressed as: where P and T are the prevailing pressure and temperature, is the heat of formation/dissociation, Z is the gas deviation factor and is the universal gas constant. Thus, plotting In P vs. 1/T will generate a straight line. Sloan [2]) stated that such linear plots might either indicate a constant of hydrate formation when the compressibility factor, and the stoichiometric ratio of water and the guest molecule can be considered constants, or the non-linear behaviors of these factors cancel each other.

Non-equilibrium Model The in-house data calculations (see results for equilibrium approach calculations) indicated that the hydrate formation process did not follow an equilibrium path. Also Sloan [2] pointed out that the Clapeyron equation presents 32 M. Carolina Gonzalez Chacin et al. Figure 3. System Configuration for: (a) Dissolution and Induction Periods and (b) Hydrate Growth Period. discrepancies with the experimental values because hydrate formation is nonstoichiometric. Such discrepancies are not important at equilibrium conditions because the non-stoichiometry remains approximately constant over small temperature ranges.

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