By Charles E. Taylor, Jonathan T. Kwan
This booklet had its genesis in a symposium on gasoline hydrates awarded on the 2003 Spring nationwide assembly of the yank Institute of Chemical Engineers. The symposium consisted of twenty papers offered in 4 classes over days. extra visitor authors have been invited to supply continuity and canopy subject matters no longer addressed throughout the symposium. fuel hydrates are a different category of chemical substances the place molecules of 1 compound (the visitor fabric) are enclosed, with out bonding chemically, inside an open reliable lattice composed of one other compound (the host material). a lot of these configurations are referred to as clathrates. The visitor molecules, u- best friend gases, are of a suitable measurement such that they healthy in the cage shaped by means of the host fabric. Commonexamples of fuel hydrates are carbon dioxide/water and methane/water clathrates. At commonplace strain and temperature, methane hydrate includes through quantity one hundred eighty instances as a lot methane as hydrate. the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has envisioned that there's extra natural carbon c- tained as methane hydrate than all different kinds of fossil fuels mixed. in reality, methane hydrates may provide a fresh resource of power for a number of centuries. Clathrate compounds have been first found within the early 1800s whilst Humphrey Davy and Michael Faraday have been experimenting with chlorine-water combinations.
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Additional resources for Advances in the Study of Gas Hydrates
Mass transfer phenomenon during growth period at constant temperature and pressure. solid-vapor (Elliot and Lira, ) as long as the system is univariant, as is the case for simple hydrates (van der Waals and Platteuw, ). This relationship can be expressed as: where P and T are the prevailing pressure and temperature, is the heat of formation/dissociation, Z is the gas deviation factor and is the universal gas constant. Thus, plotting In P vs. 1/T will generate a straight line. Sloan ) stated that such linear plots might either indicate a constant of hydrate formation when the compressibility factor, and the stoichiometric ratio of water and the guest molecule can be considered constants, or the non-linear behaviors of these factors cancel each other.
Non-equilibrium Model The in-house data calculations (see results for equilibrium approach calculations) indicated that the hydrate formation process did not follow an equilibrium path. Also Sloan  pointed out that the Clapeyron equation presents 32 M. Carolina Gonzalez Chacin et al. Figure 3. System Configuration for: (a) Dissolution and Induction Periods and (b) Hydrate Growth Period. discrepancies with the experimental values because hydrate formation is nonstoichiometric. Such discrepancies are not important at equilibrium conditions because the non-stoichiometry remains approximately constant over small temperature ranges.
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