By Heike Kahlert, Fritz Scholz
Understanding acid-base equilibria made effortless for college students in chemistry, biochemistry, biology, environmental and earth sciences. fixing chemical difficulties, be it in schooling or in actual lifestyles, usually calls for the knowledge of the acid-base equilibria in the back of them. in keeping with decades of educating event, Heike Kahlert and Fritz Scholz current a strong device to satisfy such demanding situations. they supply an easy consultant to the basics and functions of acid-base diagrams, keeping off complicated arithmetic. This textbook is richly illustrated and has complete colour all through. It bargains studying gains akin to boxed effects and a suite of formulae.
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Additional info for Acid-Base Diagrams
3 Weak Acids and Their Corresponding Strong Bases NHþ 4 /NH3 is a good example for a weak acid with a corresponding strong base. At first, an ammonium chloride solution is considered. In Sect. , the concentration of HCl is negligible in this range. 25) will affect the pH. 1 Weak Acids in High Concentration Figure 41 depicts the pH-logci diagram of an ammonium chloride solution at À1 mol LÀ1. C HB ¼ 10 The charge balance cH3 Oþ ¼ cOHÀ þ cBÀ (49) shows that the pH is somewhat left of the pH-coordinate of P1 in Fig.
Should one accept larger errors, the validity ranges will expand, while for smaller errors they will shrink. This figure demonstrates that there is only a very small area in which no simplified equation can be used, and the cubic equation (59) has to be solved. a b Fig. 47 (a) Validity ranges of the simplified equations (70), (77), (93), and (98). (b) Validity range of the simplified equation (66).
The real pH must be situated slightly left to P1, as the following reason shows. The overall H3 Oþ concentration is the sum of what was formed in reaction equation (1) and reaction equation (2). The concentration of OHÀ which has to be considered in Eq. (49) can at most be 10À13 mol LÀ1 (see the crossing point P3). Since 10À13 mol LÀ1 is negligible compared with 10À1 mol LÀ1 (the H3 Oþ concentration formed in the reaction of HCl with water), the crossing point P1 gives accurately the pH of the solution, and it holds that cH3 Oþ % cBÀ (64) Hence, the pH of the solution can be found on the pH scale at the crossing point of the H3 Oþ and the ClÀ lines, because the concentration of HCl is negligible in the pH range 0–14.