A Modern History of the Islamic World by Reinhard Schulze

By Reinhard Schulze

The Islamic global - these international locations the place Islam is the dominant or most crucial faith - encompasses territories as some distance aside as Morocco, Indonesia, Somalia and Bosnia, and contains a very diversified variety of societies and cultures. Charting the 20th-century heritage of those societies, this booklet examines either what they've got in universal and their both profound ameliorations. Political switch offers the chronological framework for the publication, yet is obvious all through within the context of tradition and society. commencing with a survey of the influence of colonialism and its attendant modernism at the Islamic global, the writer strikes directly to discover the increase of bourgeois nationalism within the Nineteen Twenties and Thirties, the period of independence pursuits (1939-1958), the complicated dating among Islamic cultures and the "republican" political tradition of the 3rd international (1956-1973), the reassertion of Islamic ideologies within the Seventies and Nineteen Eighties, and the problems surrounding the connection among Islamic tradition and civil society that experience ruled debate within the early Nineteen Nineties.

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Much worse than economic colonialism, which up to this point had been perceived as progress by almost all Muslim intellectuals, were the propagandist statements from Europe implying that all progress was the inalienable property of Europe, which might, if need be, endow other countries with it. The entire cultural framework of progress was to be put at the Orient’s disposal as a loan, of which the colonized countries could avail themselves without having their own rights to this culture. Railway 18 a modern history of the islamic world construction, the laying of telegraph lines and the development of new irrigation technologies in the Islamic countries were all marked as imports, as made in Europe.

The project for a railway from Istanbul to Basra in southern Iraq (the famous Baghdad railway), worked out by German and Ottoman engineers, was meant as a counterpart to the Suez Canal, which, since its inauguration in 1869, had become part of the Western European trade network. islamic culture and colonial modernism 27 Great Britain tried with all its might to prevent the construction of this railway and, by occupying Kuwait,37 which had been an independent principality since 1782, it intended to neutralise its utility as well as to secure its hegemony in the Gulf.

This was also true of the Egyptian poets of the ‘New School’ (al-madhab al-jadid) who no longer concealed their national sentiments under a show of attachment to the Ottomans, but expressed them in poetry of a highly subjective, impressionistic kind. The new era, they hoped, islamic culture and colonial modernism 21 would liberate them from the constraints of the old order and confirm them as subjects of society. However, the old society put up a fight. In 1900, Sultan Abd al-Hamid II wrote in his diary that the weakness of the empire, which was lamented by the followers of the ‘New School’ like the Ottoman nationalists and their new Committee for Union and Progress, was in fact a ‘natural phenomenon’ in a state comprising many nationalities.

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