By Sidney Ochs
Sidney Ochs starts off his survey with a chronological examine the heritage of nerves from the 5th century B.C. to the early eighteenth century to illustrate the improvement of our wisdom of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal functionality. Ochs then adopts a thematic process, contemplating key themes from the eighteenth century to the current. the quantity will function a useful source for historians of neuroscience and medication, philosophers of technological know-how and medication, and neuroscientists.
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Additional resources for A History of Nerve Functions: From Animal Spirits to Molecular Mechanisms
33 In this, Galen foreshadowed the awareness of the involuntary (autonomic) nervous system (Chapter 6). GALEN’S VIEW OF VISION Galen did not support an interoceptive view of vision, one in which “thin ﬁlms” emanating from the surface of objects pass into the eye to be recognized. He supported the exteroceptive concept of vision favored by Theophrastus and the Stoics (Chapter 1). 34 This position was supported by his observation that when one eye is closed the pupil of the other eye becomes enlarged.
31 Galen, as did the Alexandrians, clearly distinguished nerves from tendons and ligaments, and knew that a muscle’s action is dependent on its innervation. He demonstrated this in the vivisected pig. Ligatures were passed under the laryngeal nerves and when they were tightly pulled on, the squeals of 28 30 (Galen, 1962), pp. 18–19. (Galen, 1962), pp. 18–19. 29 31 (Neuburger, 1981), and (Ochs, 1983). (De Lacy, 1978), pp. 443–445. 13:43 P1: FCH/FFX P2: FCH/FFX 052124742Xc02 QC: FCH/FFX CB616-Ochs-v2 32 T1: FCH December 29, 2003 A HISTORY OF NERVE FUNCTIONS the pig promptly stopped and were quickly resumed when the ligatures were relaxed.
94 Erasistratus’ identiﬁcation of pneuma with vitality categorizes him as a pneumatologist,95 whereas his fellow Alexandrian, Herophilus, was a humoralist who taught that human temperament was the result of a balance of body humors. As will be seen in the following chapter, both views were incorporated into Galen’s physiology, wherein both spirits and humors are carried by the blood. 93 94 95 (Wilson, 1959). This is the term still in use for the trachea in modern Greek medicine. (Allbutt, 1921).