By Teresa A Meade
In simple terms a little bit smaller in dimension than the U.S., Brazil is the 5th greatest kingdom on this planet. it really is domestic to unique Rio de Janeiro, the amazing Amazon River, the world-renowned Carnival, and naturally, its shrinking rainforests. a quick heritage of Brazil deals a concise but entire account of the wealthy and sundry historical past of Brazil, putting the political, monetary, and cultural occasions of this day into extensive ancient context. The e-book opens with an outline of pre-colonial Brazil and is going directly to research the historical past of Portuguese exploration, during the early years of the slave exchange among Africa and the Americas, and the production of the biggest slaveholding society within the glossy global. in this period, a colourful African tradition left its mark, joined by means of affects from eu, Asian, and heart japanese immigrants, all of which mixed to create sleek Brazil. After a short-lived First Republic on the flip of the 20th century, Brazil skilled greater than 3 a long time of army dictatorship earlier than it constructed the colourful democracy that characterizes the rustic at the present time. a quick background of Brazil additionally examines key ancient figures and the hallmarks of Brazilian pop culture: football, Carnival, song, and tv.
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Extra resources for A Brief History of Brazil
The Portuguese relied on a close alliance with England, forged in the first century of colonial expansion, for both military and financial protection. The most serious threat to Portuguese dominion came from Holland and centered on the prosperous sugar-producing zones in Bahia and 24 THE PORTUGUESE COLONY Pernambuco. The Dutch invaded Brazilian territory and occupied parts of it on and off from 1625 to 1654 and intercepted the slave trade from Angola. The occupation of Brazil was mainly the work of the private Dutch West India Company working in the interest of Holland.
Along with Spain and Portugal, England, France, and the Netherlands all explored the region, established trading posts, and sought to exploit its riches. A Spaniard, Vicente Yañez Pinzón, was the first European to reach the Amazon region in 1500 and 1501, while another Spaniard, Francisco de Orellana, a member of Gonzalo Pizarro’s Peruvian expedition, named it. It was during Orellana’s ill-fated descent from the Andes into the river valley in 1541–42 in search of the mythical “El Dorado” (Spanish for “the land of gold”) that the region got its name.
Historians know of the inhumane conditions from looking at the captives’ death rate and ship captains’ logs. Slavers tolerated a death rate of 25 percent for crossings that averaged 40 to 50 days. According to Joseph Miller, one of the foremost historians of the Middle Passage (as the trip 31 The Atlantic Slave Trade, 1451–1600 o p im l ta to t al i o orts imp al t to AFRICA mp o r ts Braz é— SOUTH AMERICA of s om São T Spanish Ame rica — 27 % f or t Atlantic Islands— 9% Europ e —1 8 % of t NORTH AMERICA EUROPE 28 % 8% il — 1 toof t taoltia ml pim orptos r ts por ts tal im of to 1601–1700 EUROPE po r ts orld— 2% of O ld W tot al im NORTH AMERICA nish America — 22 %o Spa f to tal British Carib im bea po n— r ts 20 % French Cari o bbea f to n— t al 12% im of to t p o r t s al i mp D utc h C or ts a ri b b ean — 3% of to t a l i m por AFRICA ts t 1% of Brazil— 4 SOUTH AMERICA 32 ot a l i m p or ts 1701–1810 EUROPE NORTH AMERICA No r t h Am e ri c a— 6% of to ta l im Caribbean — 23% of h s i t po t ota Bri l i m r ts m e ri c a — 9 po A h s i n %o Spa f t o r ts t al im D a n is h C a ri po bbea r ts n— 1% of French Caribb tot ean — al i 22% mp of t or t ota Dutch C l im s aribb por ean — ts 8% o f tota l impor ts SOUTH AMERICA Brazil of — 3 1% AFRICA s por t l im t o ta 1811–1870 NORTH AMERICA EUROPE Uni ted Sta tes Spani sh Am — 3% e ri c Fren c of a— hC to 32 ta % a ri b li m of po AFRICA r ts tot al im po bea r ts n— 5% of t ota li m po Brazil SOUTH AMERICA r ts of — 60 % tota l imp o r ts The Atlantic Slave Trade, 1451–1870 63% 14% 20% 3% 1451– 1601– 1701– 1811– 1600 1700 1810 1870 (Based on Cathryn L.